Complications at obesity of small domestic animals

  • T. P. Lokes-Krupka Poltava State Agrarian Academy, Poltava, Ukraine
Keywords: obesity, cats, dogs, diabetes mellitus, hepatolipidosis


Excessive body weight and obesity, depending on the etiological factor, are a provoking factors for the development of a significant number of diseases, such as heart failure, arthritis, diabetes, urolithiasis, adipose degeneration of internal organs, metabolic syndrome, various dermatological disorders, etc.

One of the most common complications at the obesity is adipose infiltration of the internal organs, especially the liver (hepatolipidosis). Unlike dogs, the resistance of cats to insulin at the presence of hepatic lipogenesis and reduced export of hepatic triglycerides may cause excessive deposition of fatty acids directly to the liver. An imbalance of biologically active substances in an animal organism may lead to metabolic disorders, for example, to the metabolism violation that contributes to the development of controversial diseases, including diabetes.

Excessive body weight, obesity and diabetes mellitus connect with numerous reproductive system disorders, including ovulation cessation, irregular body, low fertility, and abortion risk.

In case of pathological changes of metabolism, so-called metabolic arthritis may develop. Its development provokes the inflammatory process as a result of metabolic disorders and increase of the pressure on the joints, friction in them, reducing the amount of intra-articular fluid. Calcium and phosphorus deficiency, the wrong correlation of these elements lead to a violation of the structure of the cartilaginous and bone tissue, which leads to the development of multiple inflammatory lesions of joints, the destruction of the cartilaginous and bone tissue.

Significant metabolic disorders, enhanced lithogenesis and lipolisis in cats and dogs with obesity, the risks of metabolic syndrome has been noted. It is investigated that metabolic syndrome contributes to the development of Cushing's disease in dogs. Enzymatic changes again the obesity can contribute to the further improvement of hypercortism, thereby contributing to the establishment and / or maintenance of accompanying diseases related to these illnesses.


German A. J. Weight management in obese pets: the tailoring concept and how it can improve results. Acta Vet Scand. 2016; 58: 57 doi:10.1186/s13028-016-0238-z

Prevalence and risk factors for canine obesity surveyed in veterinary practices in Beijing / J. Mao, Z. Xia, J. Chen, J. Yu // China. Prev. Vet. Med. – 2013; 112 .– Р. 438–442. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2013.08.012

Lokes-Krupka T. P. Stan zhyrovoho obminu za lipidozu pechinky u sviiskykh kotiv / T. P. Lokes-Krupka // Naukovyi visnyk Lvivskoho NUVMB im. S. Z.Hzhytskoho. – Lviv,2013. – Vyp. №3 (57). – T. 15. – S. 174–177. [in Ukrainian]

Zoran, D.L. Obesity in dogs and cats: a metabolic and endocrine disorder / D.L. Zoran // Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. – 2010. – Mar;40(2) . – Р. 221-239

Safety and efficacy assessment of a GLP-1 mimetic: insulin glargine combination for treatment of feline diabetes mellitus / M. A. Scuderi, Petito M. Ribeiro, S. Unniappan, C. Waldner et al. // Domest Anim Endocrinol. – 2018. – 65. P. 80-89. doi: 10.1016/j.domaniend.2018.04.003. Epub 2018 May 9.

Ou X. H. Effects of obesity and diabetes on the epigenetic modification of mammalian gametes / X. H. Ou , C. C. Zhu , S. C. Sun // J Cell Physiol. – 2018. doi: 10.1002/jcp.27847

The effect of weight loss on lameness in obese dogs with osteoarthritis / W. G. Marshall, H. AW. Hazelwinkel, D. Mullen et al. // Vet Res Comm. – 2010. – 34. P. 241–253.

Histomorphometric changes in the perirenal adipocytes of adrenalectomized rats treated with dexamethasone / F. Ahmad, I. N. Soelaiman, E. S. Mohd Ramli, T. N. Hooi, F. H. Suhaimi // Clinics. – 2011. – 66(5). – Р. 849–853

Prevalence of canine obesity, obesity-related metabolic dysfunction, and relationship with owner obesity in an obesogenic region of Spain / J. A. Montoya-Alonso, I. Bautista-Castaño, C. Peña , L. Suárez et al. // Front. Vet. Sci. – 2017. – 4. – Р. 59. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2017.00059

Kovaleva O. N. Metabolycheskyi syndrom: problemы dyahnostyky y prohnostycheskye kryteryy / O. N. Kovaleva, N. A. Kravchenko, T. N. Ambrosova, S. V. Vynohradova, Kharkovskyi hosudar. med. un-t «Vnutrenniaia medytsyna». – № 1(7). –2008. – S. 21–25.[in Russian]

Is the metabolic syndrome an intracellular Cushing state? Effects of multiple humoral factors on the transcriptional activity of the hepatic glucocorticoid-activating enzyme (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1) gene / Y. Iwasaki, S. Takayasu, M. Nishiyama, M. Tsugita, et al. // Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. – 2008. – 285. – P. 10–18.

Overexpression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 in visceral adipose tissue and underexpression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the adrenal cortex of dogs with hyperadrenocorticism / D. D. Miceli, A. MB. Abiuso, P. N. Vidal, M. F. Gallelli et al. // Open Vet J. – 2018. – 8(1). P. 77-85. doi: 10.4314/ovj.v8i1.13. Epub 2018Mar 18.

How to Cite
Lokes-Krupka, T. P. (2019). Complications at obesity of small domestic animals. Scientific and Technical Bulletin оf State Scientific Research Control Institute of Veterinary Medical Products and Fodder Additives аnd Institute of Animal Biology, 20(2), 458-463.