Dynamics of early growth of heifers of simmental breeds of different production types
One of the important factors in the economic efficiency of the dairy industry is growing healing heifers. The purpose of the work was to study the dynamics of live weight of cows of Simmental breed of different production types during their growing season. Research was conducted at farm enterprise "Litynske" of Drohobych district of Lviv oblast. 161 animals were involved to research which were studied by the live weight, multiplicity of increase in live weight, average daily increments, relative intensity and growth stress of living mass in different age periods, as well as the age of their first insemination and first calving.
It was established that the Simmental breed cows during the growing period in the young the ages were marked by good indicators of live weight. In all ages they were the prevailing standard breed by this indicator: at 6 months of age – by 20.2, in 12-month – by 39.1 and in the 18-month − by 51.6 kg. Age of first insemination of heifers was at average of 18.0 in a controlled herd, and the age of the first calving was 27.2 months with a live weight of 433.7 and 529.1 kg respectively. The live mass of healing heifers depended on their production type. During the all studied periods of growth dairy animals were characterized by the lowest indicators of live weight, multiplicity of increase live weight and average daily increments, as well the highest − meat and dairy. Dairy heifers had significantly lower than these figures, in particular relative velocity and tension of live weight growth in from birth to 6 months of age. In the rest of the ages, the indicated indicators, though unreliable, meat and dairy type had the highest, and dairy type had the lowest indicators.
Individuals of meat and dairy type were the best in earliness. Age of the first insemination was 17.5 months, while the individuals of dairy and meat type − 18.4, and meat and dairy type − in 18,0 months. Strength of the influence of cows belonging to the production type on the formation of their live weight during the period of cultivation was 8.8-36.9% of the total phenotypic variability, with the least factor influencing the live weight newborn young (8.8%) and live weight of animals after the first calving (13.4%).
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